APA Format, 250-280 words, At least 3 references use in-text citations.   Ethnicity ( African Americans ) and colon cancer.  How does being African American impact colon cancer? What are potential alt Nursing Assignment Help

APA Format, 250-280 words, At least 3 references use in-text citations.  

Ethnicity ( African Americans ) and colon cancer

How does being African American impact colon cancer?

What are potential alterations and symptoms?

Identify the pathophysiology of the associated alterations and symptoms, including the normal and altered cellular function

Consider both intra-and extra- cellular changes that occur?  

Must use at least 3 references use in-text citations. 

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Colon cancer is a significant health concern, and the impact of ethnicity on its development and progression has been widely recognized. Among various ethnic groups, African Americans are particularly affected by this disease. This assignment aims to explore how being African American impacts colon cancer, potential alterations and symptoms, as well as the associated pathophysiology, including normal and altered cellular function.

Being African American is associated with a higher risk of developing colon cancer compared to individuals of other ethnic backgrounds. Studies have consistently shown that African Americans are more likely to be diagnosed with colon cancer at younger ages and in advanced stages, leading to increased morbidity and mortality rates. This disparity can be attributed to several factors, including genetic predisposition, differences in healthcare access and utilization, socioeconomic disparities, and dietary and lifestyle factors.

Potential alterations and symptoms of colon cancer in African Americans may include changes in bowel habits, such as persistent diarrhea or constipation, blood in the stool, abdominal pain or cramping, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and iron deficiency anemia. These symptoms may vary in severity and presentation among individuals but should not be ignored.

The pathophysiology of colon cancer involves complex cellular changes within both intra-and extra-cellular environments. Normal cellular function in the colon includes regulated cell growth, division, and apoptosis. However, alterations in key cellular processes, such as mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and impaired apoptosis. These changes disrupt the balance between cell division and cell death, contributing to the formation of cancerous tumors.

Intra-cellular changes include the dysregulation of signaling pathways involved in cell growth, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. Extra-cellular changes involve the tumor microenvironment, including the recruitment of inflammatory cells, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. These alterations collectively promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis.

In conclusion, being African American significantly impacts the development and progression of colon cancer. Understanding the potential alterations and symptoms, as well as the pathophysiology behind these changes, is crucial for early detection, effective management, and improved outcomes. Further research and targeted interventions are necessary to address the disparities in colon cancer burden among African Americans and reduce the associated morbidity and mortality rates.

1. American Cancer Society. (2021). Colorectal cancer facts & figures 2021-2023. Retrieved from [insert reference here].
2. O’Keefe, S. J., & Li, J. V. (2017). The role of gut microbiota in colorectal cancer causation. International journal of molecular sciences, 18(2), 377.
3. Slattery, M. L., John, E. M., & Stern, M. C. (2000). Associations with colon and rectal cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs, 2000(28), 67-77.

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